It is filled not only with Erciyes in Kayseri, but also with Hasandağ in Aksaray and Gölludag in Niğde as a result of the explosion of hundreds of volcanoes. Then, the rain and wind effects of the erosion begins and "fairy chimneys" known as interesting formations occur.
Cappadocia, as well as its interesting geological structure, is among the rare natural and cultural centers on earth with its peribacas, settlements carved into peribacas, underground cities, rock churches and other beauties.
In Cappadocia, one of the regions chosen as a settlement by various civilizations, all human societies living in history and today have been fully integrated with nature and history. Society's lifestyle, wind, climate conditions and natural environment have continued throughout history despite all the difficulties.
The first inhabitants of Cappadocia were hunted with their own tools and fed with wild plants. They searched for closed spaces due to both harsh and cold weather conditions and many dangers in nature, and settled in cave or underground shelters, the first closed space they found and left their nomadic life.
The soft rock structure of the rifle allowed people to live. The very easy excavation of the shelters made it easier to expand them according to the needs, to connect with the new corridors and stairs. When they discovered that the rock spaces they lived in were very suitable for hiding and defending, they developed their defense mechanisms.The spaces in the underground cities, consisting of hundreds of rooms, were connected to each other by long galleries and tunnels like Labyrinth. Narrow, low and long galleries were meant to limit the enemy's actions. The best practice for defense was to separate the spaces from each other. The diameter of the slider stones, which were cut and shaped at the same place, was up to 2.5 m in some places...
In this world, which was created under the ground, living spaces were kitchens, pantry, places of worship, shops and stables. In addition, water wells and ventilation chimneys were indispensable in the underground world. These places allowed refuge people to survive and protect themselves from possible enemy attacks for months.
People who started to use rock carving as a home also moved their religious temples into rock. The vaulted, apseed, domed church architecture was carved into the rock and created without any material. The scenes, often portrayed by local artists, were mostly taken from the life of Jesus and the Bible.
The inhabitants of the region stored the nutrients they produced in the region in the places they carved in the rocks. Even today citrus, brought from the Mediterranean region, is stored in these natural storages carved into rocks.
The local people who used to live in rock-carved places do not hesitate to apply fine stone workmanship to architectural structures. Cappadocia houses were built on the slopes either by carving the rocks or by cutting stone. The stones called "Kepez", which are used in architecture, contain different colored tones. Having plenty of stone in the region, providing a serious insulation against heat, very easy to process when it is out of the cooker has made its use widespread.
The local stone type called" statue Stone " is a stone that can be easily machined in white, beige, light brown tones. This feature has brought a great richness to the architectural works with decorations in the outer and inner spaces. Due to the abundance of materials used and easy processing, stone workmanship developed and became an architectural tradition. Housing types are diversified as "carving", "semi-carving-semi-pile" and "pile". Cappadocia houses generally consist of architectural structures made of cut stone on rock carved spaces.Most of the daily life passes through the courtyard called "Hayat", surrounded by a high courtyard wall. Pantry, barn, tandoor, etc. all the places open up here.
The material of both the courtyard and the house doors is wood. The upper part of the arched doors is decorated with ivy or rosette motifs. Between the houses, the consoles were sometimes filled with one or two rows of rosettes, stars, palmettes, fans, swirls and stylized plant motifs. The consoles between the floors of the houses were decorated with various motifs such as wheel felek, rosette, palm, and the two-and triplet windows are decorated with more stylized plant motifs. Because the region is not without trees, wood ornament is less.
In guest rooms there are decorated decorations painted on plaster; flowers filled with handled vases under the tassel screen motif are painted with women filling or carrying water.
This interesting architectural tradition can be seen in Urgup, Ortahisar, Mustafapaşa, Uçhisar, Göreme, Avanos, Güzelöz within the borders of Kayseri and the next Beyköy, in the vicinity of Ihlara Valley, in all Cappadocian towns and villages, especially Güzelyurt. In the changing conditions, traditional structures become dangerous and, in a way, abandoned upon demand for modern structures, these structures have become ruins and ruins in a short period of time.
Cappadocia houses, which had not been interested for many years, had been demolished and destroyed from day to day, and even had been overlooked. However, with the revival of tourism, it has been re-opted and started to gain importance. The renovated historical buildings have been given new functions such as hotel, hostel, restaurant, discotheque and cafe, and have been serviced by tourism.
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